“Within the Nineteen Nineties and early 2000s, it seemed like I used to be forward, however after Sept. 11, individuals began arguing he was proper,” he mentioned. “However I don’t suppose it’s conclusive that I’m going to lose.”
Liberal democracy, he believes, isn’t simply an unintentional, culturally contingent byproduct of a specific historic second, as a few of his critics have argued. “I do imagine there’s an arc of historical past, and it bends towards some type of justice,” he mentioned.
In his new e book, launched on Tuesday by Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Fukuyama argues that liberalism is threatened not by a rival ideology, however by “absolutized” variations of its personal rules. On the fitting, the promoters of neoliberal economics have turned the best of particular person autonomy and the free market into a faith, warping the economic system and resulting in harmful systemic instability. And on the left, he argues, progressives have deserted particular person autonomy and free speech in favor of claims of group rights that threaten nationwide cohesion.
“The reply to those discontents,” he writes, “isn’t to desert liberalism, however to reasonable it.”
Fukuyama mentioned that Eric Chinski, his editor at Farrar, Straus, pushed him to interact with essentially the most considerate critics of race-blind liberal individualism, just like the Black thinker Charles W. Mills, quite than the newest media-driven outrage stoked by anti-critical race idea activists.
He could disagree with them, however many vital race theorists within the academy, Fukuyama mentioned, “are making critical arguments” in response to liberalism’s historic, and persevering with, failure to totally prolong equal rights to all.
He’s extra scathing concerning the “postliberal” intellectuals of the American proper, with their admiration for Hungary’s Viktor Orban, just like the authorized scholar Adrian Vermeule (whom he describes as having “flirted with the concept of overtly authoritarian authorities”) and the political scientist Patrick Deneen.